riskpossible damage (1-10)
1 = minimum, 10 = maximum

probability of occurrence (category)
1 = low
2 = medium
3 = high

rating= scope of damage x probability of occurrencecounteraction(s) and hints

line construction

  • lines break / loosen
  • guests / guides get tangled → risk of injury (stumbling, pinching off; possibly burning at the hot end

  • construction is badly damaged

  • suitable shut-off of the device operation / entering the construction only by trained personnel
  • check deflection pulleys, check parts for sharp edges or generally mechanical contact points for abrasion
  • check lines knots → do not use simple knots; use special knots
  • use of tear-resistant lines (special fishing line with sufficient traction and diameter)
  • occasional inspection / maintenance (protocol)

parts of the machine fall off

  • e.g. screws or plastic parts
  • visitors could get hurt
  • machine could be damaged (malfunction)
  • secure screws with screw locks or use stop nuts
  • check the connection stability in an acceptance report

  • occasional inspection / maintenance (protocol)

  • produce parts from elastic material (tendency to brittle fracture / prevent cracks) → use a high degree of infill


hotend or extruder smokes or burns

  • device destruction
  • smoke detectors and sprinkler systems damage the exhibition
  • filament / substrate is set on fire
  • redundant thermal sensor
  • recent firmware with temperature jump measurement, watchdog and automatic emergency shutdown
  • safe installation of the sensors (gluing / screwing)
  • regular inspection / maintenance (protocol)
  • consequences when entering are destructive

controller parts smokes or burns

  • device destruction
  • smoke detectors and sprinkler systems damage the exhibition
  • electrical inspection / acceptance with detailed protocol
  • buy high quality electronics
  • use high quality wiring / cabling and shielding (generous cross-sections, good manufacturers)
  • consequences when entering are destructive


  • print does not start
  • print result does not match the input
  • extensive testing and logging / documentation
  • establish remote maintenance routines

collisions between printed part and lines

  • design-related variability of the possible pressure dimensions depending on height Z
  • The machine could tangle and damage itself
  • simulation of the model to be printed with the appropriate software

errors in print part - vibrations during printing

  • by heavy trucks driving next to the building
  • by wobbling on the frame by guests / visitors
  • store the machine on a tight (spring) frame
  • situate warning panels with information like "Do not touch.", Print may loose traction." or similar

  • select the line diameter so that the installation becomes stable against stretching


material loss - tool oozes

  • material spills uncontrollably on the printing platform or at other points in the effective radius of the machine
  • due to insufficient screwing between the hot end heating block and the nozzle (thermal transition zone)
  • check for tightness of the strand components and note them in the acceptance report
  • regular inspection / maintenance (protocol)
  • no further countermeasures possible (cannot be checked - only optically)

material does not stick → " spaghetti salad"

  • at the start of printing
  • during printing
  • leads to wasted material
  • regular cleaning of the printing surface
  • check the distance between the platform and nozzle

  • check the overhang angle in the print model and calculated support structures

  • checking the printing parameters (layer height, extruded volume per unit of time, etc.)

  • establish stability in the printing frame (no accidental offsets by warping the machine frame → thus offset in the printing part)

10material extrusion fails
  • extruder problem (clogging) / mechanical defect / heating failure

  • material feeder blocked

  • material torn

  • kink protection for filament (filament guide → PTFE)
  • check for blockages in the hotend
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